A new study from a research team at Ohio State University provides insight into how concussions work. The research is based on a laboratory experiment with mouse tissue, but the effects are quite similar to what is seen with human patients with neurological disorders.
Cells contain axons, which transmit signals (messages) to other parts of the body and brain through the nerve system.
Concussions activate a protein “called TRPV4, which causes a chain reaction that prompts a pause in content exchange along the axon.” (1) When the pause occurs, the axon swells, which is the physical sign of the problem. Similar swelling occurs in patients with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
This research also indicates that the swelling can be reversed with prompt reduction of stress to the brain. Further, if the protein is suppressed, the swelling does not occur. However, we don’t know exactly what that means for humans, at least not yet.
Knowing how something works is key to developing fixes for problems.
- Yuanzheng Gu, Peter Jukkola, Qian Wang, Thomas Esparza, Yi Zhao, David Brody, Chen Gu. Polarity of varicosity initiation in central neuron mechanosensation. The Journal of Cell Biology, 2017; jcb.201606065 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201606065
- Picture source: https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/cells.html