The US was founded on the promise of “the Right to Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness” in Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence.
From the start, the relationship between the country and this promise has been at best inconsistent and sometimes ironic. After all, the principal writer of the Declaration, Jefferson, was a slave-owner. So for whom was this promise made? Everyone? Or the wealthy, the planters, the slave-owners and the merchants? (Remember, there were no factories — that was before the industrial revolution.)
The inconsistency continues to this day.
We have groups concerned with whether babies or born, but not with what happens to them after they are born. How long do they live? What’s their quality of life? As Ed Cara notes, in some areas of the US, children will now have shorter lives than their parents. (2)
A new study in the Journal of the American Medical Association talks about discrepancies in life expectancy. I’ve blogged about this before, but it’s nice to see authoritative sources recognizing the issue.
The new statistical analysis shows that there is a difference in life expectancy of up to 20 years based on the county in which you live. In this analysis, the issues affecting life expectancy are
- Income and poverty
- The wealthy live longer
- Both Native Americans and African Americans have a shorter life expectancy
- Regular exercise
- Those who do live longer
- Obesity, Diabetes and Hypertension
- Shorten life expectancy
- Each level completed adds to life expectancy
- Quality of health care
- Higher quality is associated with living longer
- Having health insurance
- Having health insurance promotes longer life
- Access to physicians
- Having more physicians in an area helps
These factors translate into differences in life expectancy in the US based on where one lives:
- Residents of central Colorado, coastal California and the New York Metro area live longer
- Residents of eastern Kentucky and much of the Old South, especially along the lower Mississippi River, have a shorter life expectancy
- The Old South in this case includes Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia (outside of Atlanta), Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma and Tennessee (outside of Nashville)
- The two metro areas, Nashville and Atlanta, offer much better life expectancy than the rest of their states
The states with the lowest life expectancy are those with the lowest spending on public health and health education.
One limitation of this study is that the analysis is at a county level, and there is only selected data available at that level regarding health. In particular, suicide is now one of the top 10 causes of death in the US. Suicide isn’t reported accurately or consistently, and there is limited data available on the causes of suicide.
A second limitation is the inter-relationships between some of the factors measured. For example, wealth is associated with having health insurance, with less use of cigarettes, and with living in an area with better access to medical professionals. By breaking the analysis into this much detail, does the report understate the role of wealth in life expectancy?
By the way, I use the image of Ben Franklin on some of these posts for the following reasons:
- His brilliance
- His common sense
- His skill at negotiation
- And among the Founding Fathers of the US, he became a profound opponent to slavery
- Laura Dywer-Lindgren, et. al., “Inequalities in Life Expectancy Among US Counties,1980 to 2014,”
- Ed Cara, “Kids Will Die Younger than Their Parents in Some Parts of the US,” Vocativ. 9 May 2017. https://www.aol.com/article/news/2017/05/09/kids-will-die-younger-than-their-parents-in-some-parts-of-us/22077174/